Letting your child pick their snack may help you eat better, study suggests

Giving in to your kid’s desire for an unhealthy snack may improve your own eating choices, a new University of Alberta study shows.

The research, published in Appetite, showed that parents and other adult caregivers such as babysitters tended to make better food choices for themselves if they accommodated the youngster’s request for a particular snack — whether that snack was healthy or not.

It was a “striking finding” that shows the psychological impacts of decision-making, said lead researcher Utku Akkoc, a lecturer in the Alberta School of Business and a consumer behaviour expert who did the study for his PhD.

Through a series of experiments and a field study, Akkoc, along with co-author and U of A business professor Robert Fisher, measured how powerful caregivers felt and what foods they consumed after making decisions in various scenarios, such as when they packed a treat the child had asked for in a school lunch.

Caregivers who listened to their children’s preferences ate a lower number of unhealthy foods themselves. In one experiment, participants who granted a child’s snack request ate on average 2.7 fewer unhealthy snacks and 1.9 more healthy snacks than those who imposed their own preferences on the child.

The reason likely lies in how the caregivers feel about their decision, Akkoc said.

“Our theory is that moms who accommodate the child’s preferences against their better judgment would end up feeling less powerful, compared to moms who successfully impose their own food choices on their children. This happens because accommodation involves a passive and less stressful willingness to yield to the child. When people feel less powerful, they make more inhibited, healthier choices like a dieter would.”

By contrast, adults imposing their own choices involves “an active exercise of persuasion in trying to get the child to eat that healthy fruit salad, not a piece of chocolate cake. You feel powerful after that, because you succeeded, and you feel licensed to reward yourself with treats,” Akkoc said, noting that the same was also true for caregivers who successfully imposed unhealthy food choices on their child.

The research also showed the caregivers were influenced in their personal choices if they were eating together with their child, consuming the same healthy or unhealthy food.

“We believe it’s because people would feel hypocritical if they ate cake in front of a child that’s made to eat fruit,” Akkoc said.

The findings offer an “effective, simple recipe” in tackling the problems of poor eating and obesity, Akkoc believes.

“It shows some ways parents and other adults can increase their own healthy eating by dining together with their children after making healthy choices for them,” he said.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Alberta. Original written by Bev Betkowski. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Source

Walnuts may slow cognitive decline in at-risk elderly

Eating walnuts may help slow cognitive decline in at-risk groups of the elderly population, according to a study conducted by researchers in California and Spain.

The Walnuts and Healthy Aging Study, published this month in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found that walnut consumption by healthy, elderly adults had little effect on cognitive function over two years, but it had greater effect on elderly adults who had smoked more and had a lower baseline neuropsychological test scores.

The study examined nearly 640 free-living elders in Loma Linda, California, USA, and in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. For two years, the test group included walnuts in their daily diet, and the control group abstained from walnuts.

Walnuts contain omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, which have previously been found to counteract oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which are drivers of cognitive decline.

Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Loma Linda University School of Public Health and the study’s principal investigator, said this was the largest and most well-controlled trial ever conducted on the effects of nuts on cognition.

“While this was a minor result, it could lead to better outcomes when conducted over longer periods of time,” Sabaté said. “Further investigation is definitely warranted based on our findings, especially for disadvantaged populations, who may have the most to gain from incorporating walnuts and other nuts into their diet.”

Sabaté and his research team at Loma Linda University were the first to discover the cholesterol-lowering effect of nut consumption — specifically walnuts — with lowering blood cholesterol. Findings were first published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993.

Subsequently, findings from Loma Linda University researchers have linked nut consumption to lower risk of cardiovascular diseases.

The Walnuts and Healthy Aging Study was funded by a grant from the California Walnut Commission, which had no input in the study design, data collection, analyses, or writing and submission of the manuscript.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center. Original written by Ansel Oliver. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Source

What it’s like to live without a sense of smell

New research reveals the impact of smell loss. As many as one in 20 people live without smell. But until now there has been little research into the range of emotional and practical impacts it causes. The new study finds that almost every aspect of life is disrupted – from everyday concerns about personal hygiene to a loss of sexual intimacy and the break-down of personal relationships. Source

Ready-to-eat cereal fortification: a modelling study on the impact of changing ready-to-eat cereal fortification levels on population intake of nutrients

1.Institute of Medicine (2003) Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

2.Bailey, RL, West, KP & Black, RE (2015) The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Ann Nutr Metab 66, Suppl. 2, 2233.

3.Fulgoni, VL, Keast, DR, Bailey, RLet al. (2011) Foods, fortificants, and supplements: where do Americans get their nutrients? J Nutr 141, 18471854.

4.Berner, LA, Keast, DR, Bailey, RLet al. (2014) Fortified foods are major contributors to nutrient intakes in diets of US children and adolescents. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 10091022.e8.

5.Institute of Medicine (2006) Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

8.Fulgoni, VL & Buckley, RB (2015) The contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereal to vitamin and mineral intake in the US population, NHANES 2007–2010. Nutrients 7, 39493958.

9.Michels, N, De Henauw, S, Breidenassel, Cet al. (2015) European adolescent ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers have a healthier dietary intake and body composition compared with non-RTEC consumers. Eur J Nutr 54, 653664.

10.Priebe, MG & McMonagle, JR (2016) Effects of ready-to-eat-cereals on key nutritional and health outcomes: a systematic review. PLoS One 11, e0164931.

11.Balvin Frantzen, L, Trevino, RP, Echon, RMet al. (2013) Association between frequency of ready-to-eat cereal consumption, nutrient intakes, and body mass index in fourth- to sixth-grade low-income minority children. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 511519.

12.Hill, KM, Jonnalagadda, SS, Albertson, AMet al. (2012) Top food sources contributing to vitamin D intake and the association of ready-to-eat cereal and breakfast consumption habits to vitamin D intake in Canadians and United States Americans. J Food Sci 77, H170H175.

13.Yeung, LF, Cogswell, ME, Carriquiry, ALet al. (2011) Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2006. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 172185.

14.Albertson, AM, Affenito, SG, Bauserman, Ret al. (2009) The relationship of ready-to-eat cereal consumption to nutrient intake, blood lipids, and body mass index of children as they age through adolescence. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 15571565.

15.Albertson, AM, Wold, AC & Joshi, N (2012) Ready-to-eat cereal consumption patterns: the relationship to nutrient intake, whole grain intake, and body mass index in an older American population. J Aging Res 2012, 631310.

16.Bailey, RL, Fulgoni, VL, Keast, DRet al. (2012) Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents? J Pediatr 161, 837842.

17.Bailey, RL, Catellier, DJ, Jun, Set al. (2018) Total usual nutrient intakes of US children (under 48 months): findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. J Nutr 148, 9S, 1557S1566S.

18.Jun, S, Catellier, DJ, Eldridge, ALet al. (2018) Usual nutrient intakes from the diets of US children by WIC participation and income: findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. J Nutr 148, 9S, 1567S1574S.

20.Johnson, CL, Dohrmann, SM, Burt, VLet al. (2014) National health and nutrition examination survey: sample design, 2011–2014. Vital Health Stat 2 issue 162, 133.

21.Moshfegh, AJ, Rhodes, DG, Baer, DJet al. (2008) The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 324332.

22.Blanton, CA, Moshfegh, AJ, Baer, DJet al. (2006) The USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method accurately estimates group total energy and nutrient intake. J Nutr 136, 25942599.

24.US Department of Health and Human Services & Food and Drug Administration (2016) Food Labeling: Serving Sizes of Foods That Can Reasonably Be Consumed at One Eating Occasion; Dual-Column Labeling; Updating, Modifying, and Establishing Certain Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed; Serving Size for Breath Mints; and Technical Amendments. Fed Regist 81, 34000340467.

26.Institute of Medicine (1998) Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

27.Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

28.Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

30.Beaton, G, Milner, J, Corey, Pet al. (1979) Sources of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation. Am J Clin Nutr 32, 25462559.

31.Beaton, G, Milner, J, McGuire, Vet al. (1983) Source of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation. Carbohydrate sources, vitamins, and minerals. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 986995.

32.Kipnis, V, Midthune, D, Freedman, Let al. (2002) Bias in dietary-report instruments and its implications for nutritional epidemiology. Public Health Nutr 5, 915923.

33.Dodd, K, Guenther, P, Freedman, Let al. (2006) Statistical methods for estimating usual intake of nutrients and foods: a review of the theory. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 16401650.

34.Tooze, J, Midthune, D, Dodd, Ket al. (2006) A new statistical method for estimating the usual intake of episodically consumed foods with application to their distribution. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 15751587.

35.Cox, DR (1982) Combination of data. In Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 45–53 [Kotz, S and Johnson, NL, editors]. New York: Wiley.

36.Dwyer, JT, Wiemer, KL, Dary, Oet al. (2015) Fortification and health: challenges and opportunities. Adv Nutr 6, 124131.

37.Malek, AM, Newman, JC, Hunt, KJet al. (2019) Race/ethnicity, enrichment/fortification, and dietary supplementation in the US population, NHANES 2009–2012. Nutrients 11, E1005.

38.Sacco, JE, Dodd, KW, Kirkpatrick, SIet al. (2013) Voluntary food fortification in the United States: potential for excessive intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 592597.

39.Sacco, JE & Tarasuk, V (2011) Discretionary addition of vitamins and minerals to foods: implications for healthy eating. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 313320.

40.Sacco, JE & Tarasuk, V (2009) Health Canada’s proposed discretionary fortification policy is misaligned with the nutritional needs of Canadians. J Nutr 139, 19801986.

41.Bailey, RL (2020) Current regulatory guidelines and resources to support research of dietary supplements in the United States. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 60, 298309.

42.Bailey, RL, Fulgoni, VL, Keast, DRet al. (2012) Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use. J Acad Nutr Diet 112, 657663.e4.

43.Bailey, RL, Fulgoni, VL, Keast, DRet al. (2011) Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 13761381.

44.Bruins, MJ, Mugambi, G, Verkaik-Kloosterman, Jet al. (2015) Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods. Food Nutr Res 59, 26020.

45.Food and Drug Administration (1980) Nutritional quality of foods; addition of nutrients. Fed Regist 45, 63146324.

46.Xu, M, Huang, T, Lee, AWet al. (2016) Ready-to-eat cereal consumption with total and cause-specific mortality: prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals. J Am Coll Nutr 35, 217223.

47.Bailey, RL, Dodd, KW, Goldman, JAet al. (2010) Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr 140, 817822.

48.Papanikolaou, Y & Fulgoni, VL (2017) Grain foods are contributors of nutrient density for American adults and help close nutrient recommendation gaps: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Nutrients 9, E873.

49.Bailey, RL, Dodd, KW, Gahche, JJet al. (2010) Total folate and folic acid intake from foods and dietary supplements in the United States: 2003–2006. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 231237.

50.Bailey, RL, McDowell, MA, Dodd, KWet al. (2010) Total folate and folic acid intakes from foods and dietary supplements of US children aged 1–13 y. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 353358.

51.Blumberg, JB, Balz, FB, Fulgoni, VLet al. (2017) Impact of frequency of multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplement intake on nutritional adequacy and nutrient deficiencies in US adults. Nutrients 9, E849.

52.Bailey, LB, Stover, PJ, McNulty, Het al. (2015) Biomarkers of nutrition for development – folate review. J Nutr 145, issue 7, 1636S1680S.

53.Dietrich, M, Brown, CJ & Block, G (2005) The effect of folate fortification of cereal-grain products on blood folate status, dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 266274.

54.Pfeiffer, CM, Johnson, CL, Jain, RBet al. (2007) Trends in blood folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in the United States, 1988–2004. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 718727.

55.Zlotkin, S (2006) A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children. J Nutr 136, issue 2, 502S506S.

56.Minto, C, Vecchio, MG, Lamprecht, Met al. (2017) Definition of a tolerable upper intake level of niacin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-dependent effects of nicotinamide and nicotinic acid supplementation. Nutr Rev 75, 471490.

57.Yetley, EA, MacFarlane, AJ, Greene-Finestone, LSet al. (2017) Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group. Am J Clin Nutr 105, issue 1, 249S285S.

58.Subar, AF, Freedman, LS, Tooze, JAet al. (2015) Addressing current criticism regarding the value of self-report dietary data. J Nutr 145, 26392645.

59.Subar, AF, Kipnis, V, Troiano, RPet al. (2003) Using intake biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: the OPEN study. Am J Epidemiol 158, 113.

60.Murphy, MM, Spungen, JH, Barraj, LMet al. (2013) Revising the daily values may affect food fortification and in turn nutrient intake adequacy. J Nutr 143, 19992006.

61.Dwyer, JT, Woteki, C, Bailey, Ret al. (2014) Fortification: new findings and implications. Nutr Rev 72, 127141.

Source

Relationships between children’s sugar consumption at home and their food choices and consumption at school lunch

1.

Craig, R & Mindell, J (2015) Health Survey for England 2015. Leeds: Health and Social Care Information Centre.

3.

Moynihan, P & Petersen, PE (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutr 7, 201226.

9.

Amini, M, Dadkhah-Piraghaj, M, Abtahi, M et al. (2014) Nutritional assessment for primary school children in Tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption. Int J Prev Med 5, 611.

11.

Rogers, I, Ness, A, Hebditch, K et al. (2007) Quality of food eaten in English primary schools: school dinners vs packed lunches. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 856864.

12.

Kremer-Sadlik, T, Morgenstern, A, Peters, C et al. (2015) Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French family dinners. Appetite 89, 8492.

13.

Lloyd-Williams, F, Bristow, K, Capewell, S et al. (2011) Young children’s food in Liverpool day-care settings: a qualitative study of pre-school nutrition policy and practice. Public Health Nutr 14, 18581866.

14.

Tugault-Lafleur, CN, Black, JL & Barr, SI (2017) A systematic review of methods to assess children’s diets in the school context. Adv Nutr 8, 6379.

15.

Creswell, JW & Clark, VLP (2007) Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

17.

Foster, E, Matthews, J, Lloyd, J et al. (2008) Children’s estimates of food portion size: the development and evaluation of three portion size assessment tools for use with children. Br J Nutr 99, 175184.

20.

Morse, JM (2000) Determining Sample Size: Qualitative Health Research, 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

21.

Moser, A & Korstjens, I (2018) Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis. Eur J Gen Pract 24, 918.

22.

Patton, MQ (2005) Qualitative Research. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

25.

Hsieh, H-F & Shannon, SE (2005) Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res 15, 12771288.

26.

Desor, J, Maller, O & Andrews, K (1975) Ingestive responses of human newborns to salty, sour, and bitter stimuli. J Comp Physiol Psychol 89, 966970.

27.

Scaglioni, S, Arrizza, C, Vecchi, F et al. (2011) Determinants of children’s eating behavior. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 6 Suppl., 2006S2011S.

28.

Wardle, J, Guthrie, C, Sanderson, S et al. (2001) Food and activity preferences in children of lean and obese parents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 971979.

29.

Mennella, JA, Pepino, MY & Reed, DR (2005) Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences. Pediatrics 115, e216e222.

30.

Desor, J & Beauchamp, GK (1987) Longitudinal changes in sweet preferences in humans. Physiol Behav 39, 639641.

31.

Birch, LL & Fisher, JO (1998) Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 101, 539549.

32.

Ventura, AK & Mennella, JA (2011) Innate and learned preferences for sweet taste during childhood. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14, 379384.

33.

Anderson, A, Porteous, L, Foster, E et al. (2005) The impact of a school-based nutrition education intervention on dietary intake and cognitive and attitudinal variables relating to fruits and vegetables. Public Health Nutr 8, 650656.

34.

Moore, L & Tapper, K (2008) The impact of school fruit tuck shops and school food policies on children’s fruit consumption: a cluster randomised trial of schools in deprived areas. J Epidemiol Community Health 62, 926931.

35.

Micha, R, Karageorgou, D, Bakogianni, I et al. (2018) Effectiveness of school food environment policies on children’s dietary behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 13, e0194555.

36.

Knai, C, Pomerleau, J, Lock, K et al. (2006) Getting children to eat more fruit and vegetables: a systematic review. Prev Med 42, 8595.

37.

Caton, SJ, Blundell, P, Ahern, SM et al. (2014) Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits. PLoS One 9, e97609.

38.

Zeinstra, GG, Koelen, MA, Kok, FJ et al. (2007) Cognitive development and children’s perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 30.

41.

Evans, C, Mandl, V, Christian, M et al. (2016) Impact of school lunch type on nutritional quality of English children’s diets. Public Health Nutr 19, 3645.

42.

Golley, R, Pearce, J & Nelson, M (2011) Children’s lunchtime food choices following the introduction of food-based standards for school meals: observations from six primary schools in Sheffield. Public Health Nutr 14, 271278.

43.

Ventura, AK & Birch, LL (2008) Does parenting affect children’s eating and weight status? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5, 15.

44.

Warren, E, Parry, O, Lynch, R et al. (2008) ‘If I don’t like it then I can choose what I want’: Welsh school children’s accounts of preference for and control over food choice. Health Promot Int 23, 144151.

45.

Cho, D & Kim, S (2018) Interplay between self-efficacy and perceived availability at home and in the school neighborhood on adolescents’ fruit and vegetable intake and energy-dense, low-nutrient food and sugary drink consumption. J Nutr Educ Behav 50, 856867.

46.

Haughton, CF, Waring, ME, Wang, ML et al. (2018) Home matters: adolescents drink more sugar-sweetened beverages when available at home. J Pediatr 202, 121128.

47.

Pearson, N, Biddle, SJ & Gorely, T (2009) Family correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr 12, 267283.

48.

Mattila, ML, Rautava, P, Sillanpaa, M et al. (2000) Caries in five-year-old children and associations with family-related factors. J Dent Res 79, 875881.

49.

Evans, CE & Cade, JE (2017) A cross-sectional assessment of food-and nutrient-based standards applied to British schoolchildren’s packed lunches. Public Health Nutr 20, 565570.

50.

Dudley, DA, Cotton, WG & Peralta, LR (2015) Teaching approaches and strategies that promote healthy eating in primary school children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 12, 28.

51.

Eisenmann, JC, Gentile, DA, Welk, GJ et al. (2008) SWITCH: rationale, design, and implementation of a community, school, and family-based intervention to modify behaviors related to childhood obesity. BMC Public Health 8, 223.

52.

Graneheim, UH & Lundman, B (2004) Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today 24, 105112.

53.

Barbour, R (2001) Checklists for improving rigour in qualitative research: a case of the tail wagging the dog? BMJ 322, 11151117.

Source