1.Hales, C, Carroll, MD, Fryar, CDet al. (2017) Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data Brief 288.
2.Banfield, EC, Liu, Y, Davis, JSet al. (2016) Poor Adherence to US Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Population. J Acad Nutr Diet 116, 21–27.10.1016/j.jand.2015.08.010
3.Mozaffarian, D & Ludwig, D. (2010) Dietary guidelines in the 21st century— A time for food. JAMA 304, 681–682.10.1001/jama.2010.1116
4.Monteiro, CA (2009) Nutrition and health. The issue is not food, nor nutrients, so much as processing. Public Health Nutr 12, 729–731.10.1017/S1368980009005291
5.Fardet, A, Rock, E, Bassama, Jet al. (2015) Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing. Adv Nutr 6, 629–638.10.3945/an.115.008789
6.Rowe, S, Alexander, N, Almeida, Net al. (2011) Food science challenge: Translating the dietary guidelines for Americans to bring about real behavior change. J Food Sci 76, R29–37.10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01973.x
7.Ogden, CL, Lamb, MM, Carroll, MDet al. (2010) Obesity and socioeconomic status in children and adolescents: United States, 2005–2008. NCHS Data Brief 51.
8.Fahlman, MM, McCaughtry, N, Martin, Jet al. (2010) Racial and socioeconomic disparities in nutrition behaviors: Targeted interventions needed. J Nutr Educ Behav 42, 10–16.10.1016/j.jneb.2008.11.003
9.Frederick, CB, Snellman, K, Putnam, RD (2014) Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111, 1338–1342.10.1073/pnas.1321355110
10.Wang, Y & Beydoun, MA (2007) The obesity epidemic in the United States–gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev 29, 6–28.10.1093/epirev/mxm007
11.Poti, JM, Mendez, MA, Ng, SWet al. (2015) Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households? Am J Clin Nutr 101, 1251–1262.10.3945/ajcn.114.100925
12.Poti, JM, Mendez, MA, Ng, SWet al. (2016) Highly processed and ready-to-eat packaged food and beverage purchases differ by race/ethnicity among US households. J Nutr 146, 1722–1730.10.3945/jn.116.230441
13.Martinez Steele, E, Popkin, BM, Swinburn, Bet al. (2017) The share of ultra-processed foods and the overall nutritional quality of diets in the US: Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Popul Health Metr 15, 6.10.1186/s12963-017-0119-3
14.Martinez Steele, E, Baraldi, LG, Louzada, MLet al. (2016) Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 6, e009892.10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009892
15.Eicher-Miller, HA, Fulgoni, VL & Keast, DR (2012) Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003–2008: A report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council. J Nutr 142, 2065S–2072S.10.3945/jn.112.164442
16.Monteiro, C, Levy, R, Claro, Ret al. (2010) A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing. Cad Saúde Pública 26, 2039–2049.10.1590/S0102-311X2010001100005
17.Moubarac, JC, Parra, DC, Cannon, Get al. (2014) Food classification systems based on food processing: Significance and implications for policies and actions: A systematic literature review and assessment. Curr Obes Rep 3, 256–272.10.1007/s13679-014-0092-0
18.Poti, JM, Braga, B & Qin, B (2017) Ultra-processed food intake and obesity: What really matters for health-processing or nutrient content? Curr Obes Rep 6, 420–431.10.1007/s13679-017-0285-4
19.Moodie, R, Stuckler, D, Monteiro, Cet al. (2013) Profits and pandemics: Prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet 381, 670–679.10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62089-3
20.Poti, JM, Duffey, KJ & Popkin, BM (2014) The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: Is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet? Am J Clin Nutr 99, 162–171.10.3945/ajcn.113.071928
21.MacInnis, B & Rausser, G (2005) Does processing contribute to child obesity disparities? Amer J Agr Econ 87, 1154–1158.10.1111/j.1467-8276.2005.00801.x
22.Eicher-Miller, HA, Fulgoni, VL & Keast, DR (2015) Processed food contributions to energy and nutrient intake differ among US children by race/ethnicity. Nutrients 7, 10076–10088.10.3390/nu7125503
23.Dwyer, JT, Fulgoni, VL 3rd, Clemens, RAet al. (2012) Is “processed” a four-letter word? The role of processed foods in achieving dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations. Adv Nutr 3, 536–548.10.3945/an.111.000901
24.Malik, VS, Popkin, BM, Bray, GAet al. (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 33, 2477–2483.10.2337/dc10-1079
25.Reedy, J & Krebs-Smith, SM (2010) Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 1477–1484.10.1016/j.jada.2010.07.010
26.Malik, VS, Pan, A, Willett, WCet al. (2013) Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 1084–1102.10.3945/ajcn.113.058362
27.Grimes, CA, Riddell, LJ, Campbell, KJet al. (2013) Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk. Pediatrics 131, 14–21.10.1542/peds.2012-1628
28.Zanovec, M, O’Neil, CE, Cho, SSet al. (2010) Relationship between whole grain and fiber consumption and body weight measures among 6- to 18-year-olds. J Pediatr 157, 578–583.10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.04.041
29.Ambrosini, GL (2014) Childhood dietary patterns and later obesity: A review of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc 73, 137–146.10.1017/S0029665113003765
30.Elliott, C (2010) Eatertainment and the (Re)classification of children’s foods. Food Cult Soc Int J Multidiscip Res 13, 539–553.
31.Elliott, C (2011) “It’s junk food and chicken nuggets”: Children’s perspectives on ‘kids’ food’ and the question of food classification. J Consum Behav 10, 133–140.10.1002/cb.360
32.Cornwell, TB, McAlister, AR & Polmear-Swendris, N (2014) Children’s knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers. Appetite 81, 277–283.10.1016/j.appet.2014.06.017
33.Slining, MM, Mathias, KC & Popkin, BM (2013) Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989–2010. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 1683–1694.10.1016/j.jand.2013.06.001
34.Heary, C & Hennessy, E (2002) The use of focus group interviews in pediatric health care research. J Pediatr Psych 27, 47–57.10.1093/jpepsy/27.1.47
35.Morgan, M, Gibbs, S, Maxwell, Ket al. (2002) Hearing children’s voices: Methodological issues in conducting focus groups with children aged 7–11 years. Qual Res 2, 5–20.10.1177/1468794102002001636
36.Gibson, JE (2012) Interviews and focus groups with children: Methods that match children’s developing competencies. J Family Theory Rev 4, 148–159.10.1111/j.1756-2589.2012.00119.x
37.Scott, J (2008) Children as respondents: The challenge for quantitative methods. In Research with Children, pp. 87–108 [Christensen, P. and James, A., editors]. London, England: Falmer Press.
38.Patton, MQ (2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
39.Patton, M (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park (CA): Sage Publications Inc.
40.Hubbard, KL, Must, A, Eliasziw, Met al. (2014) What’s in children’s backpacks: Foods brought from home. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 1424–1431.10.1016/j.jand.2014.05.010
41.Braun, V & Clarke, V (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol 3, 77–101.10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
42.Desjardins, E (2013) “Making Something Out of Nothing”: Food Literacy Among Youth, Young Pregnant Women and Young Parents who are at Risk for Poor Health. Ontario, Canada: Public Health Ontario.
43.Murimi, MW, Moyeda-Carabaza, AF, Nguyen, Bet al. (2018) Factors that contribute to effective nutrition education interventions in children: A systematic review. Nutr Rev 76, 553–580.10.1093/nutrit/nuy020
44.Monteiro, CA, Moubarac, JC, Cannon, Get al. (2013) Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 2, 21–28.10.1111/obr.12107
45.Popkin, B (2006) Global nutrition dynamics: The world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 289–298.10.1093/ajcn/84.2.289