1.DeLuca, HF & Schnoes, HK (1976) Metabolism and mechanism of action of vitamin D. Ann Rev Biochem 45, 631–666.
2.Lips, P (2001) Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 22, 477–501.
3.Lavie, CJ, Dinicolantonio, JJ, Milani, RV et al. (2013) Vitamin D and cardiovascular health. Circulation 128, 2404–2406.
4.Pittas, AG, Lau, J, Hu, FB et al. (2007) The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 2017–2029.
5.Ford, ES, Ajani, UA, McGuire, LC et al. (2005) Concentrations of serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 28, 1228–1230.
6.Holick, MF (2004) Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 362–371.
7.Arteh, J, Narra, S & Nair, S (2010) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci 55, 2624–2628.
8.Stokes, CS, Volmer, DA, Grunhage, F et al. (2013) Vitamin D in chronic liver disease. Liver Int 33, 338–352.
9.Barchetta, I, Angelico, F, Del Ben, M et al. (2011) Strong association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and low 25(OH) vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes. BMC Med 9, 85.
10.Targher, G, Bertolini, L, Scala, L et al. (2007) Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 17, 517–524.
12.Xu, C, Liu, Q, Zhang, Q et al. (2015) Urinary enterolactone associated with liver enzyme levels in US adults: national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Br J Nutr 114, 91–97.
13.Xu, C, Liu, Q, Zhang, Q et al. (2015) Urinary enterolactone is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in men in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–10. Br J Nutr 113, 683–690.
16.Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium IoM (2011) Implications and special concerns: conclusions about vitamin D deficiency in the United States and Canada. In Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, p. 487 [Ross, AC, Taylor, CL, Yaktine, AL et al., editors]. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
17.Xiao, Q, Sinha, R, Graubard, BI et al. (2014) Inverse associations of total and decaffeinated coffee with liver enzyme levels in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010. Hepatology 60, 2091–2098.
18.Nadeem Saqib, MA, Rafique, I, Hayder, I et al. (2018) Comparison of vitamin D levels with bone density, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase – an insight from major cities of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 68, 543–547.
19.Naderpoor, N, Mousa, A, de Courten, M et al. (2018) The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and liver enzymes in overweight or obese adults: cross-sectional and interventional outcomes. J Steroid Biochem 177, 193–199.
20.Mansour-Ghanaei, F, Pourmasoumi, M, Hadi, A et al. (2019) The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis. J Diet Suppl 1, 1–19.
21.Al Alwan, I, Al Badi, M, Badri, M et al. (2019) Higher serum alkaline phosphatase activity in infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers. Arch Osteoporos 14, 102.
22.Jesudason, D, Need, AG, Horowitz, M et al. (2002) Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone resorption markers in vitamin D insufficiency. Bone 31, 626–630.
23.Welz, T, Childs, K, Ibrahim, F et al. (2010) Efavirenz is associated with severe vitamin D deficiency and increased alkaline phosphatase. AIDS 24, 1923–1928.
24.Martin-Carbonero, L, Nunez, M, Gonzalez-Lahoz, J et al. (2003) Incidence of liver injury after beginning antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz or nevirapine. HIV Clin Trials 4, 115–120.
25.Sulkowski, MS, Thomas, DL, Mehta, SH et al. (2002) Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy: role of hepatitis C and B infections. Hepatology 35, 182–189.
26.Cassetti, I, Madruga, JV, Suleiman, JM et al. (2007) The safety and efficacy of tenofovir DF in combination with lamivudine and efavirenz through 6 years in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. HIV Clin Trials 8, 164–172.
27.Kaplan, MM & Righetti, A (1970) Induction of rat liver alkaline phosphatase: the mechanism of the serum elevation in bile duct obstruction. J Clin Invest 49, 508–516.
28.Garnero, P & Delmas, PD (1993) Assessment of the serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase with a new immunoradiometric assay in patients with metabolic bone disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77, 1046–1053.
29.Need, AG, O’Loughlin, PD, Morris, HA et al. (2008) Vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in severe vitamin D deficiency. J Bone Miner Res 23, 1859–1863.
30.Xiong, Y, Zhang, Y, Xin, N et al. (2017) 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes osteogenesis by promoting Wnt signaling pathway. J Steroid Biochem 174, 153–160.
31.Ozeki, K, Aoki, H & Fukui, Y (2008) The effect of adsorbed vitamin D and K to hydroxyapatite on ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cell. J Mater Sci Mater Med 19, 1753–1757.
32.Poon, CC, Li, RW, Seto, SW et al. (2015) In vitro vitamin K(2) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) combination enhances osteoblasts anabolism of diabetic mice. Eur J Pharmacol 767, 30–40.
33.Petta, S, Camma, C, Scazzone, C et al. (2010) Low vitamin D serum level is related to severe fibrosis and low responsiveness to interferon-based therapy in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 51, 1158–1167.
34.Abu-Mouch, S, Fireman, Z, Jarchovsky, J et al. (2011) Vitamin D supplementation improves sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C (genotype 1)-naive patients. World J Gastroenterol 17, 5184–5190.
35.Deng, Q, Liu, J, Li, Q et al. (2013) Interaction of occupational manganese exposure and alcohol drinking aggravates the increase of liver enzyme concentrations from a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health 12, 30.
36.Tolstrup, JS, Gronbaek, M, Tybjaerg-Hansen, A et al. (2009) Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population. Am J Gastroenterol 104, 2182–2188.
37.Rex, KF, Krarup, HB, Laurberg, P et al. (2016) Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark. Int J Circumpolar Health 75, 29528.
38.Gluud, C, Andersen, I, Dietrichson, O et al. (1981) Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase as markers of alcohol consumption in out-patient alcoholics. Eur J Clin Invest 11, 171–176.
39.Shimizu, Y, Nakazato, M, Sekita, T et al. (2013) Association between alkaline phosphatase and hypertension in a rural Japanese population: the Nagasaki Islands study. J Physiol Anthropol 32, 10.