Equity implications of rice fortification: a modelling study from Nepal

1.Torheim, LE, Ferguson, EL, Penrose, Ket al. (2010) Women in resource-poor settings are at risk of inadequate intakes of multiple micronutrients. J Nutr 140, 2051S2058S.

2.Rao, S, Yajnik, CS, Kanade, Aet al. (2001) Intake of micronutrient-rich foods in rural Indian mothers is associated with the size of their babies at birth: Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. J Nutr 131, 12171224.

3.Zerfu, TA, Umeta, M & Baye, K (2016) Dietary diversity during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of maternal anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in a prospective cohort study in rural Ethiopia. Am J Clin Nutr 103, 14821484.

4.Development Initiatives (2018) 2018 Global Nutrition Report: Shining A Light to Spur Action on Nutrition. Bristol, UK: Development Initiatives.

5.Kassebaum, NJ, Jasrasaria, R, Naghavi, Met al. (2014) A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood 123, 615624.

6.Jiang, TN, Christian, P, Khatry, SKet al. (2005) Micronutrient deficiencies in early pregnancy are common, concurrent, and vary by season among rural Nepali pregnant women. J Nutr 135, 11061112.

7.Ministry of Health and Population N, New ERA, United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, et al. (2018) Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey, 2016. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal.

8.Sudo, N, Sekiyama, M, Maharjan, Met al. (2006) Gender differences in dietary intake among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal: assessment of portion sizes and food consumption frequencies. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 469477.

9.Henjum, S, Torheim, LE, Thorne-Lyman, ALet al. (2015) Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Public Health Nutr 18, 32013210.

10.Geniez, P, Mathiassen, A, de Pee, Set al. (2014) Integrating food poverty and minimum cost diet methods into a single framework: a case study using a Nepalese household expenditure survey. Food Nutr Bull 35, 151159.

11.Parajuli, RP, Umezaki, M & Watanabe, C (2012) Diet among people in the Terai region of Nepal, an area of micronutrient deficiency. J Biosoc Sci 44, 401415.

12.Ferguson, EL, Watson, L, Berger, Jet al. (2019) Realistic food-based approaches alone may not ensure dietary adequacy for women and young children in South-East Asia. Matern Child Health J 23, 5566.

13.Akhter, N, Saville, N, Shrestha, Bet al. (2018) Change in cost and affordability of a typical and nutritionally adequate diet among socio-economic groups in rural Nepal after the 2008 food price crisis. Food Secur 10, 615629.

14.Biehl, E, Klemm, RDW, Manohar, Set al. (2016) What does it cost to improve household diets in Nepal? Using the cost of the diet method to model lowest cost dietary changes. Food Nutr Bull 37, 247260.

15.Peña-Rosas, JP, Mithra, P, Unnikrishnan, Bet al. (2019) Fortification of rice with vitamins and minerals for addressing micronutrient malnutrition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019(10), 1132.

16.Muthayya, S, Hall, J, Bagriansky, Jet al. (2012) Rice fortification: an emerging opportunity to contribute to the elimination of vitamin and mineral deficiency worldwide. Food Nutr Bull 33, 296307.

17.De-Regil, LM, Pena-Rosas, JP, Laillou, Aet al. (2014) Considerations for rice fortification in public health: conclusions of a technical consultation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1324, 16.

18.World Health Organization (2018) Guideline: fortification of Rice with Vitamins and Minerals as a Public Health Strategy. No. 9241550295. Geneva: WHO.

19.Sight and Life, World Food Programme (2015) Scaling up Rice Fortification in Asia, pp. 192 [Codling, K, Fabrizio, C, Ghoos, Ket al., editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life; WFP.

20.Sambour, J (2010) Introducing Fortified Rice in Cambodia and Vietnam: PATH Fortified Rice Feasibility Study, pp. 144. Seattle: PATH.

21.Ebbing, H, Rosenzweig, J & Karim, R (2015) Case study: Bangladesh. In Scaling Up Rice Fortification in Asia, pp. 7982 [Codling, K, Fabrizio, C, Ghoos, Ket al., editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life; WFP.

22.Fiorentino, M, Perignon, M, Kuong, Ket al. (2018) Effect of multi-micronutrient-fortified rice on cognitive performance depends on premix composition and cognitive function tested: results of an effectiveness study in Cambodian schoolchildren. Public Health Nutr 21, 816827.

23.Perignon, M, Fiorentino, M, Kuong, Ket al. (2015) Multi-micronutrient fortified rice improved vitamin a status of Cambodian school children. Eur J Nutr Food Safety 5, 832833.10.9734/EJNFS/2015/21114

24.Perignon, M, Fiorentino, M, Kuong, Ket al. (2016) Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin a status of Cambodian schoolchildren: a double-blind cluster-randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 8, 2944.

25.Moretti, D, Zimmermann, MB, Muthayya, Set al. (2006) Extruded rice fortified with micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate reduces iron deficiency in Indian schoolchildren: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 822829.

26.Radhika, MS, Nair, KM, Kumar, RHet al. (2011) Micronized ferric pyrophosphate supplied through extruded rice kernels improves body iron stores in children: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled midday meal feeding trial in Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 12021210.10.3945/ajcn.110.007179

27.World Food Programme & Government of India (2017) A Case for Fortified Rice in Odisha, India, pp. 133. New Delhi, India: WFP India.

28.Della Lucia, C, Rodrigues, K, Rodrigues, Vet al. (2016) Diet quality and adequacy of nutrients in preschool children: should rice fortified with micronutrients be included in school meals? Nutrients 8, 296.

29.Beinner, MA, Velasquez-Meléndez, G, Pessoa, MCet al. (2010) Iron-fortified rice is as efficacious as supplemental iron drops in infants and young children. J Nutr 140, 4953.

30.Angeles-Agdeppa, I, Capanzana, MV, Barba, CVet al. (2008) Efficacy of iron-fortified rice in reducing anemia among schoolchildren in the Philippines. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 78, 7486.

31.Hotz, C, Porcayo, M, Onofre, Get al. (2008) Efficacy of iron-fortified ultra rice in improving the iron status of women in Mexico. Food Nutr Bull 29, 140149.

32.Tacsan, L, Fabrizio, C & Smit, J (2015) Rice fortification in Costa Rica: case study. In Scaling Up Rice Fortifiction in Asia, pp. 7378 [Codling, K, Fabrizio, C, Ghoos, Ket al., editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life; WFP.

33.World Food Programme & Government of Nepal (2018) Landscape Analysis for Rice Fortification in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: WFP and Government of Nepal.

34.Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (2017) Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) Survey in Afghanistan. Geneva, Switzerland: Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition.

35.Harris-Fry, H, Beard, BJ, Harrisson, Tet al. (2018) Smartphone tool to collect repeated 24 h dietary recall data in Nepal. Public Health Nutr 21, 260272.

36.Harris-Fry, H, Paudel, P, Karn, Met al. (2016) Development and validation of a photographic food atlas for portion size assessment in the southern plains of Nepal. Public Health Nutr 19, 24952507.

37.Harris-Fry, HA (2016) Intra-household food allocation in rural Nepal. PhD Thesis, University College London.

38.Harris-Fry, HA, Paudel, P, Harrisson, Tet al. (2018) Participatory women’s groups with cash transfers can increase dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy during pregnancy, whereas women’s groups with food transfers can increase equity in intrahousehold energy allocation. J Nutr 148, 14721483.

39.Harris-Fry, HA, Paudel, P, Shrestha, Net al. (2018) Status and determinants of intra-household food allocation in rural Nepal. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 15241536.

40.Saville, NM, Shrestha, BP, Style, Set al. (2016) Protocol of the Low Birth Weight South Asia Trial (LBWSAT), a cluster-randomised controlled trial testing impact on birth weight and infant nutrition of Participatory Learning and Action through women’s groups, with and without unconditional transfers of fortified food or cash during pregnancy in Nepal. BMC Pregnancy Childb 16, 320.

41.Saville, NM, Shrestha, BP, Style, Set al. (2018) Impact on birth weight and child growth of Participatory Learning and Action women’s groups with and without transfers of food or cash during pregnancy: findings of the low birth weight South Asia cluster-randomised controlled trial (LBWSAT) in Nepal. PLOS ONE 13, e0194064.

42.Central Bureau of Statistics (2016) Annual Household Survey 2014/15. Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal and UNDP.

43.Ministry of Health, Nepal, New ERA & ICF (2017) Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016, pp. 1591. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Health, Nepal.

44.Style, S, Beard, BJ, Harris-Fry, Het al. (2017) Experiences in running a complex electronic data capture system using mobile phones in a large-scale population trial in southern Nepal. Global Health Action 10, 1330858.

45.Weisell, R & Dop, MC (2012) The adult male equivalent concept and its application to Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES). Food Nutr Bull 33, S157S162.

46.de Pee, S (2014) Proposing nutrients and nutrient levels for rice fortification. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1324, 5566.

48.Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution (2015) Bangladesh Standard Specification for Fortified Rice. Dhaka, Bangladesh.

49.de Pee, S, Moretti, D & Fabrizio, C (2018) Standards and specifications for fortified rice. In Scaling Up Rice Fortification in West Africa, pp. 6367 [Codling, K, Fabrizio, C, Ghoos, Ket al., editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life and WFP.

50.Bienvenido, OJ & Food and Agriculture Organization (1993) Rice in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Series no 26. pp. 1–162. Rome, Italy: International Rice Research Institute and UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).

51.Department of Food Technology and Quality Control (DFTQC) Nepal (2017) Nepalese Food Composition Table, 3rd ed., pp. 177. Kathmandu, Nepal: DFTQC.

52.Longvah, T, Anantan, I, Bhaskarachary, Ket al. (2017) Indian Food Composition Tables. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research Hyderabad.

53.Shaheen, N, Bari, L & Mannan, M (2013) Food composition table for Bangladesh. University of Dhaka.

54.Montville, JB, Ahuja, JK, Martin, CLet al. (2013) USDA food and nutrient database for dietary studies (FNDDS), 5.0. Procedia Food Sci 2, 99112.

55.National Research Council (1986) The Probability Approach. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

56.Box, G & Cox, D (1964) An analysis of transformations. J R Stat Soc Series B (Methodol) 26, 211243.

57.Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization (2004) Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, 21–30 September 1998.

58.Food and Nutrition Board, Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

59.Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

60.Brown, KH, Rivera, JA, Bhutta, Zet al. (2004) International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) technical document. Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food Nutr Bull 25, S99203.

61.Hotz, C (2007) Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes. Food Nutr Bull 28, S430S453.

62.World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients [Allen, L, de Benoist, B, Dary, Oet al., editors]. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and FAO.

63.Montgomery, S, Rosenweig, J & Smit, J (2015) Technology for rice fortification. In Scaling Up Rice Fortification in Asia, pp. 5762 [Codling, K, Fabrizio, C, Ghoos, Ket al., editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life; WFP.

64.Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 8476, 307310.

65.Tang, AM, Chung, M, Dong, Ket al. (2016) Determining a Global Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Cutoff to Assess Malnutrition in Pregnant Women. Washington DC, USA: Family Health International (FHI) 360/Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA).

66.Tang, AM, Chung, M, Dong, Ket al. (2017) Determining a Global Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Cutoff to Assess Underweight in Adults (Men and Nonpregnant Women). Washington, DC: FHI 360/FANTA.

67.Food and Agriculture Organization & Family Health International (FHI) 360 (2016) Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women: A Guide for Measurement. Rome: FAO.

68.Mahato, S, Mahato, A, Karna, PKet al. (2018) Investigating aquifer contamination and groundwater quality in eastern Terai region of Nepal. BMC Res Notes 11, 321.

69.Pant, BR (2011) Ground water quality in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. Environ Monit Assess 178, 477485.

70.Kannel, PR, Lee, S & Lee, Y-S (2008) Assessment of spatial–temporal patterns of surface and ground water qualities and factors influencing management strategy of groundwater system in an urban river corridor of Nepal. J Environ Manage 86, 595604.

71.Pokhrel, D, Bhandari, B & Viraraghavan, T (2009) Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Terai region of Nepal: an overview of health concerns and treatment options. Environ Int 35, 157161.

72.World Health Organization (2008) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Incorporating the First and Second Addenda. Geneva: WHO.

73.Merrill, RD, Shamim, AA, Ali, Het al. (2011) Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh. J Nutr 141, 944949.

74.de Gier, B, Ponce, MC, Perignon, Met al. (2016) Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk: a cluster randomized trial. PLOS ONE 11, e0145351.

75.Arsenault, JE, Yakes, EA, Islam, MMet al. (2013) Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity. J Nutr 143, 197203.

76.Allen, RE, Dangour, AD, Tedstone, AEet al. (2015) Does fortification of staple foods improve vitamin D intakes and status of groups at risk of deficiency? A United Kingdom modeling study. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 338344.

77.Laillou, A, Berger, J, Le, BMet al. (2012) Improvement of the Vietnamese diet for women of reproductive age by micronutrient fortification of staples foods and condiments. PLOS ONE 7, e50538.

78.Pinkaew, S, Winichagoon, P, Hurrell, RFet al. (2013) Extruded rice grains fortified with zinc, iron, and vitamin A increase zinc status of Thai school children when incorporated into a school lunch program. J Nutr 143, 362368.

79.Thankachan, P, Rah, JH, Thomas, Tet al. (2012) Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children. J Nutr 142, 846852.

80.Hussain, SZ, Singh, B & Rather, AH (2014) Efficacy of micronutrient fortified extruded rice in improving the iron and vitamin A status in Indian schoolchildren. Int J Agr Food Sci Technol 3, 227238.

81.World Food Programme & Government of India (2017) A Case for Fortified Rice in Odisha, pp. 133. New Delhi, India: WFP India.

82.Khan, SY (2017) Fortifying school meals: Rice fortification to address anaemia in Odisha. Nutr Exchange 7, 22.

83.Salcedo, J Jr, Bamba, M, Carrasco, EOet al. (1950) Artificial enrichment of white rice as a solution to Endemic Beriberi: report of field trials in Bataan, Philippines, three figures. J Nutr 42, 501523.

84.Argüello, B, de la Paz, M & Umaña Solís, LM (2011) Impacto de la fortificación de alimentos con ácido fólico en los defectos del tubo neural en Costa Rica [Impact of the fortification of food with folic acid on neural tube defects in Costa Rica]. Rev Panam Salud Pública 30, 16.

85.Codling, K, Fabrizio, C & Rosenzweig, J (2018) Identifying appropriate delivery options for fortified rice. In Scaling Up Rice Fortification in Asia [Codling, K, Fabrizio, C, Ghoos, Ket al., editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Sight and Life; WFP.

Source

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *