Changes to dietary and health outcomes following implementation of the 2012 updated US Department of Agriculture school nutrition standards: analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2016


Fryar, CD, Carroll, MD & Ogden, CL (2016) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 1963–1965 Through 2011–2012. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS Health E-Stats.


Committee on Nutrition Standards for National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs (2010) School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.


US Department of Agriculture (2012) Nutrition standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Final rule. Federal Register 77, 40884167.


Terry-McElrath, YM, O’Malley, PM & Johnston, LD (2015) Foods and beverages offered in US public secondary schools through the National School Lunch Program from 2011–2013: early evidence of improved nutrition and reduced disparities. Prev Med 78, 5258.10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.07.010


Merlo, C, Brener, N, Kann, L et al. (2015) School-level practices to increase availability of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and reduce sodium in school meals – United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64, 905908.10.15585/mmwr.mm6433a3


Johnson, DB, Podrabsky, M, Rocha, A et al. (2016) Effect of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on the nutritional quality of meals selected by students and school lunch participation rates. JAMA Pediatr 170, e153918.10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3918


Fox, MK & Gearan, E (2019) Summary of Findings: School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study. Alexandria, VA: US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.


Vaudrin, N, Lloyd, K, Yedidia, MJ et al. (2018) Impact of the 2010 US Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on school breakfast and lunch participation rates between 2008 and 2015. Am J Public Health 108, 8486.10.2105/AJPH.2017.304102


Cohen, JFW, Richardson, S, Parker, E et al. (2014) Impact of the new U.S. Department of Agriculture school meal standards on food selection, consumption, and waste. Am J Prev Med 46, 388394.10.1016/j.amepre.2013.11.013


Cohen, JFW, Gorski, MT, Hoffman, JA et al. (2016) Healthier standards for school meals and snacks: impact on school food revenues and lunch participation rates. Am J Prev Med 51, 485492.10.1016/j.amepre.2016.02.031


Schwartz, MB, Henderson, KE, Read, M et al. (2015) New school meal regulations increase fruit consumption and do not increase total plate waste. Child Obes 11, 242247.10.1089/chi.2015.0019


Fox, MK, Gearan, E, Cabili, C et al. (2019) Student Participation, Satisfaction, Plate Waste, and Dietary Intakes: School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study. Alexandria, VA: US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.


Cullen, KW, Chen, T-A & Dave, JM (2015) Changes in foods selected and consumed after implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in southeast Texas. Prev Med Rep 2, 440443.10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.05.007


Bontrager Yoder, AB, Foecke, LL & Schoeller, DA (2015) Factors affecting fruit and vegetable school lunch waste in Wisconsin elementary schools participating in Farm to School programmes. Public Health Nutr 18, 28552863.10.1017/S1368980015000385


Amin, SA, Yon, BA, Taylor, JC et al. (2015) Impact of the National School Lunch Program on fruit and vegetable selection in northeastern elementary schoolchildren, 2012–2013. Public Health Rep 130, 453457.10.1177/003335491513000508


Cullen, KW & Dave, JM (2017) The new federal school nutrition standards and meal patterns: early evidence examining the influence on student dietary behavior and the school food environment. J Acad Nutr Diet 117, 185191.10.1016/j.jand.2016.10.031


Satija, A, Yu, E, Willett, WC et al. (2015) Understanding nutritional epidemiology and its role in policy. Adv Nutr 6, 518.10.3945/an.114.007492


Au, LE, Gurzo, K, Gosliner, W et al. (2018) Eating school meals daily is associated with healthier dietary intakes: the Healthy Communities Study. J Acad Nutr Diet 118, 14741481.e1471.10.1016/j.jand.2018.01.010


Zipf, G, Chiappa, M, Porter, KS et al. (2013) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Plan and Operations, 1999–2010. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.


Bowman, SA, Clemens, JC, Friday, JE et al. (2017) Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2013–14: Methodology and User Guide. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Bowman, SA, Clemens, JC, Shimizu, M et al. (2018) Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2015–2016: Methodology and User Guide. Beltsville, MD: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Mills, S, Brown, H, Wrieden, W et al. (2017) Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14, 109.10.1186/s12966-017-0567-y


Dimick, JB & Ryan, AM (2014) Methods for evaluating changes in health care policy: the difference-in-differences approach, JAMA guide to statistics and methods. JAMA 312, 24012402.10.1001/jama.2014.16153


Raifman, J, Moscoe, E, Austin, SB et al. (2017) Difference-in-differences analysis of the association between state same-sex marriage policies and adolescent suicide attempts. JAMA Pediatr 171, 350356.


Turner, L & Chaloupka, FJ (2014) Perceived reactions of elementary school students to changes in school lunches after implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture’s new meals standards: minimal backlash, but rural and socioeconomic disparities exist. Child Obes 10, 349356.


US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (2017) Child Nutrition Programs: Flexibilities for Milk, Whole Grains, and Sodium Requirements (82 FR 56703). Washington, DC: Federal Register.


Taber, DR, Chriqui, JF, Powell, L et al. (2013) Association between state laws governing school meal nutrition content and student weight status: implications for new USDA school meal standards. JAMA Pediatr 167, 513519.10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.399


Byker Shanks, C, Banna, J Serrano, EL (2017) Food waste in the National School Lunch Program 1978–2015: a systematic review. J Acad Nutr Diet 117, 17921807.10.1016/j.jand.2017.06.008


Niaki, SF, Moore, CE, Chen, T-A et al. (2017) Younger elementary school students waste more school lunch foods than older elementary school students. J Acad Nutr Diet 117, 95101.


US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (2020) Simplifying Meal Service and Monitoring Requirements in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs (85 FR 4094). Washington, DC: Federal Register.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *