How to protect both health and food system sustainability? A holistic ‘global health’-based approach via the 3V rule proposal


Fardet, A & Rock, E (2018) Reductionist nutrition research has meaning only within the framework of holistic thinking. Adv Nutr 9, 655670.


Gazan, R, Brouzes, CMC, Vieux, F et al. (2018) Mathematical optimization to explore tomorrow’s sustainable diets: a narrative review. Adv Nutr 9, 602616.


Rutten, M, Achterbosch, TJ, de Boer, IJM et al. (2018) Metrics, models and foresight for European sustainable food and nutrition security: the vision of the SUSFANS project. Agric Sys 163, 4557.10.1016/j.agsy.2016.10.014


Ronzon, T, Paillard, S, Chemineau, P et al. (2013) Elements for a foresight debate on food sustainability. In Food System Sustainability: Insights from duALIne, pp. 176197 [Esnouf, C, Russel, M & Bricas, N, editors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Fardet, A & Rock, E (2014) Toward a new philosophy of preventive nutrition: from a reductionist to a holistic paradigm to improve nutritional recommendations. Adv Nutr 5, 430446.10.3945/an.114.006122


Vieux, F, Soler, L-G, Touazi, D et al. (2013) High nutritional quality is not associated with low greenhouse gas emissions in self-selected diets of French adults. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 569583.


Payne, CLR, Scarborough, P & Cobiac, L (2016) Do low-carbon-emission diets lead to higher nutritional quality and positive health outcomes? A systematic review of the literature. Public Health Nutr 19, 26542661.


van de Kamp, ME, van Doorenb, C, Hollander, A et al. (2018) Healthy diets with reduced environmental impact? The greenhouse gas emissions of various diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines. Food Res Int 104, 1424.


Horgan, GW, Perrin, A, Whybrow, S et al. (2016) Achieving dietary recommendations and reducing greenhouse gas emissions: modelling diets to minimise the change from current intakes. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13, 46.10.1186/s12966-016-0370-1


Hitaj, C, Rehkamp, S, Canning, P et al. (2019) Greenhouse gas emissions in the United States food system: current and healthy diet scenarios. ES&T 53, 54935503.10.1021/acs.est.8b06828


Sjors, C, Hedenus, F, Sjolander, A et al. (2017) Adherence to dietary recommendations for Swedish adults across categories of greenhouse gas emissions from food. Public Health Nutr 20, 33813393.10.1017/S1368980017002300


Seconda, L, Baudry, J, Alles, B et al. (2018) Comparing nutritional, economic, and environmental performances of diets according to their levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Clim Change 148, 155172.10.1007/s10584-018-2195-1


Balter, K, Sjors, C, Sjolander, A et al. (2017) Is a diet low in greenhouse gas emissions a nutritious diet? Analyses of self-selected diets in the LifeGene study. Arch Public Health 75, 17.10.1186/s13690-017-0185-9


Murakami, K & Livingstone, MBE (2018) Greenhouse gas emissions of self-selected diets in the UK and their association with diet quality: is energy under-reporting a problem? Nutr J 17, 27.


Macdiarmid, JI, Kyle, J, Horgan, GW et al. (2012) Sustainable diets for the future: can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet? Am J Clin Nutr 96, 632639.10.3945/ajcn.112.038729


Musicus, AA, Moran, AJ, Lawman, HG et al. (2019) Online randomized controlled trials of restaurant sodium warning labels. Am J Prev Med 57, e181e193.10.1016/j.amepre.2019.06.024


Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization (2019) FAO-WHO Sustainable Healthy Diets: Guiding Principles. Rome, Italy: FAO & WHO.


Food and Agriculture Organization (2014) The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2): Committing to a Future Free of Malnutrition, 19–21 November 2014 “Better Nutrition, Better Lives”. Rome, Italy: FAO.


Scherer, L, Tomasik, B, Rueda, O et al. (2018) Framework for integrating animal welfare into life cycle sustainability assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 23, 14761490.10.1007/s11367-017-1420-x


Caillavet, F, Fadhuile, A & Nichèle, V (2016) Taxing animal-based foods for sustainability: environmental, nutritional and social perspectives in France. Eur Rev Agric Econ 43, 537560.


Millward, DJ & Garnett, T (2010) Food and the planet: nutritional dilemmas of greenhouse gas emission reductions through reduced intakes of meat and dairy foods. Proc Nutr Soc 69, 103118.10.1017/S0029665109991868


Stoll-Kleemann, S & Schmidt, UJ (2016) Reducing meat consumption in developed and transition countries to counter climate change and biodiversity loss: a review of influence factors. Reg Environ Change 17, 12611277.10.1007/s10113-016-1057-5


Llonch, P, Haskell, MJ, Dewhurst, RJ et al. (2016) Current available strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in livestock systems: an animal welfare perspective. Animal 11, 274284.


Farvid, MS, Stern, MC, Norat, T et al. (2018) Consumption of red and processed meat and breast cancer incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer 143, 27872799.10.1002/ijc.31848


Ranabhat, CL, Park, M-B & Kim, C-B (2020) Influence of alcohol and red meat consumption on life expectancy: results of 164 countries from 1992 to 2013. Nutrients 12, 459.


Zheng, Y, Li, Y, Satija, A et al. (2019) Association of changes in red meat consumption with total and cause specific mortality among US women and men: two prospective cohort studies. BMJ 365, l2110.10.1136/bmj.l2110


van den Brandt, PA (2019) Red meat, processed meat, and other dietary protein sources and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Eur J Epidemio 34, 351369.10.1007/s10654-019-00483-9


Händel, MN, Cardoso, I, Rasmussen, KM et al. (2019) Processed meat intake and chronic disease morbidity and mortality: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PLOS ONE 14, e0223883.10.1371/journal.pone.0223883


Aston, LM, Smith, JN & Powles, JW (2012) Impact of a reduced red and processed meat dietary pattern on disease risks and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK: a modelling study. BMJ Open 2, e001072.


White, RR & Hall, MB (2017) Nutritional and greenhouse gas impacts of removing animals from US agriculture. PNAS 114, E10301E10308.10.1073/pnas.1707322114


Scarborough, P, Appleby, PN, Mizdrak, A et al. (2014) Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Clim Change 125, 179192.10.1007/s10584-014-1169-1


Bernardi, E, Capri, E & Pulina, G (2019) The Sustainability of Meat and Cured Meats In Italy: Nutritional Aspect, Food Safety, Environmental Impact, Animal Welfare, Circular Economy, Fight Against Waste. Milano: FrancoAngeli.


Food and Agriculture Organization, Harinder, PSM & Philippe, A (2014) Towards a concept of sustainable animal diets. Report Based on the Collated Results of a Survey of Stakeholder Views. FAO Animal Production and Health Report No. 7, Rome.


Hyland, JJ, Henchion, M, McCarthy, M et al. (2017) The role of meat in strategies to achieve a sustainable diet lower in greenhouse gas emissions: a review. Meat Sci 132, 189195.10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.04.014


Rijsberman, F (2017) The key role of the meat industry in transformation to a low-carbon, climate resilient, sustainable economy. Meat Sci 132, 25.10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.04.013


Adesogan, AT, Havelaar, AH, McKune, SL et al. (2019) Animal source foods: Sustainability problem or malnutrition and sustainability solution? Perspective matters. Glob Food Secur 25, 100325.10.1016/j.gfs.2019.100325


Scherer, L, Behrens, P & Tukker, A (2019) Opportunity for a dietary win-win-win in nutrition, environment, and animal welfare. One Earth 1, 349360.


Food and Agriculture Organization, Monteiro, CA, Cannon, G et al. (2019) Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality, and Health Using the NOVA Classification System. Rome, Italy: FAO.


Fardet, A & Rock, E (2019) Ultra-processed foods: a new holistic paradigm? Trends Food Sci Technol 93, 174184.10.1016/j.tifs.2019.09.016


Fardet, A (2018) Chapter 3: Characterization of the degree of food processing in relation with its health potential and effects. Adv Food Nutr Res 85, 79121.


Monteiro, CA (2009) Nutrition and health: the issue is not food, nor nutrients, so much as processing. Public Health Nutr 12, 729731.


Ministry of Health of Brazil (2014)
Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population
. São Paulo: Secretariat of Health Care, Primary Health Care Department.


Jacobs, DR & Tapsell, LC (2013) Food synergy: the key to a healthy diet. Proc Nutr Soc 72, 200206.10.1017/S0029665112003011


Jacobs, DR & Steffen, LM (2003) Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 508S513S.10.1093/ajcn/78.3.508S


Food and Agriculture Organization (2002) The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. Rome, Italy: FAO.


Marron-Ponce, JA, Flores, M, Cediel, G et al. (2019) Associations between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of nutrients related to chronic non-communicable diseases in Mexico. J Acad Nutr Diet 119, 18521865.10.1016/j.jand.2019.04.020


Machado, PP, Steele, EM, Levy, RB et al. (2019) Ultra-processed foods and recommended intake levels of nutrients linked to non-communicable diseases in Australia: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 9, e029544.


Gupta, S, Hawk, T, Aggarwal, A et al. (2019) Characterizing ultra-processed foods by energy density, nutrient density and cost. Front Nutr 6, 70.


Rauber, F, da Costa Louzada, ML, Steele, E et al. (2018) Ultra-processed food consumption and chronic non-communicable diseases-related dietary nutrient profile in the UK (2008–2014). Nutrients 10, 587.


Cornwell, B, Villamor, E, Mora-Plazas, M et al. (2018) Processed and ultra-processed foods are associated with lower-quality nutrient profiles in children from Colombia. Public Health Nutr 21, 142147.10.1017/S1368980017000891


Luiten, CM, Steenhuis, IH, Eyles, H et al. (2016) Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets. Public Health Nutr 19, 530538.10.1017/S1368980015002177


Louzada, ML, Martins, AP, Canella, DS et al. (2015) Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet. Rev Saude Publica 49, 18.10.1590/S0034-8910.2015049006211


Rani, V, Arends, DE & Brouwer, ID (2010) Dietary diversity as an indicator of micronutrient adequacy of the diet of five to eight year old Indian rural children. Nutr Food Sci 40, 466476.10.1108/00346651011076974


Steyn, NP, Nel, JH, Nantel, G et al. (2006) Food variety and dietary diversity scores in children: are they good indicators of dietary adequacy? Public Health Nutr 9, 644650.10.1079/PHN2005912


Nguyen, PH, Huybregts, L, Sanghvi, TG et al. (2018) Dietary diversity predicts the adequacy of micronutrient intake in pregnant adolescent girls and women in Bangladesh, but use of the 5-group cutoff poorly identifies individuals with inadequate intake. J Nutr 148, 790797.10.1093/jn/nxy045


de Oliveira Otto, MC, Padhye, NS, Bertoni, AG et al. (2015) Everything in moderation: dietary diversity and quality, central obesity and risk of diabetes. PLoS One 10, e0141341.


PAHO & World Health Organization (2019) Ultra-Processed Food and Drink Products in Latin America: Sales, Sources, Nutrient Profiles, and Policy Implications. Washington, DC, USA: Pan American Health Organization.


ANSES (2017) Table CIQUAL. Nutritional composition of foods. Maisons-Alfort, France: Agence nationale de sécurité sanitairede l’alimentation, de l’environnementet du travail; available at (accessed November 2019).


Moubarac, J-C, Parra, DC, Cannon, G et al. (2014) Food classification systems based on food processing: significance and implications for policies and actions: a systematic literature review and assessment. Curr Obes Rep 3, 256272.


Monteiro, CA, Cannon, G, Levy, RB et al. (2019) Ultra-processed foods: what they are and how to identify them? Public Health Nutr 22, 936941.


Fardet, A & Boirie, Y (2013) Associations between diet-related diseases and impaired physiological mechanisms: a holistic approach based on meta-analyses to identify targets for preventive nutrition. Nutr Rev 71, 643656.


World Health Organization (2015) Sugars Intake for Adults and Children: Guideline: Department of Nutrition for Health and Development. Switzerland: WHO.


Stark, AH, Crawford, MA & Reifen, R (2008) Update on α-linolenic acid. Nutr Rev 66, 326332.10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00040.x


Willcox, DC, Willcox, BJ, Todoriki, H et al. (2009) The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load. J Am Coll Nutr 28, 500S516S.10.1080/07315724.2009.10718117


Willcox, DC, Scapagnini, G & Willcox, BJ (2014) Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet. Mech Ageing Dev 136, 148162.


Cordain, L (2002) The nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups. JANA 5, 1524.


Martinez-Lacoba, R, Pardo-Garcia, I, Amo-Saus, E et al. (2018) Mediterranean diet and health outcomes: a systematic meta-review. Eur J Public Health 28, 955961.


D’Alessandro, A, Lampignano, L & De Pergola, G (2019) Mediterranean diet pyramid: a proposal for Italian people: a systematic review of prospective studies to derive serving sizes. Nutrients 11, 1296.


Meltzer, HM, Brantsæter, AL, Trolle, E et al. (2019) Environmental sustainability perspectives of the Nordic diet. Nutrients 11, 2248.10.3390/nu11092248


Nordic Council of Ministers (2014) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012: Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5th ed. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Council of Ministers.


Mithril, C, Dragsted, LO, Meyer, C et al. (2013) Dietary composition and nutrient content of the New Nordic diet. Public Health Nutr 16, 777785.


Lichtenstein, AH, Appel, LJ, Brands, M et al. (2006) Summary of American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations revision 2006. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26, 21862191.


Enas, EA, Senthilkumar, A, Chennikkara, H et al. (2003) Prudent diet and preventive nutrition from pediatrics to geriatrics: current knowledge and practical recommendations. Indian Heart J 55, 310338.


Parker, HW & Vadiveloo, MK (2019) Diet quality of vegetarian diets compared with nonvegetarian diets: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 77, 144160.


Rifai, L & Silver, MA (2016) A review of the DASH diet as an optimal dietary plan for symptomatic heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 58, 548554.10.1016/j.pcad.2015.11.001


Le Mouël, C, de Lattre-Gasquet, M & Mora, O (2018) Land Use and Food Security in 2050: A Narrow Road (Agrimonde-Terra). Paris: Quaé Publisher.


Willett, W, Rockström, J, Loken, B et al. (2019) Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 393, 28.10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4


Karlsson, J, Röös, E, Sjunnestrand, T et al. (2017) Future Nordic Diets: Exploring Ways For Sustainably Feeding the Nordics. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd.


Stolze, M, Schader, C, Müller, A et al. (2019) Sustainable and Healthy Diets: Trade-Offs and Synergies. Final Scientific Report: NRP 69 “Healthy Nutrition and Sustainable Food Production”. Switzerland: Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL.


Solagro (2014) Afterres2050: A Sustainable Scenario for Agriculture and Land Use in France by 2050. Toulouse, France:Solagro.


Poux, X & Aubert, P-M (2018) An Agroecological Europe in 2050: Multifunctional Agriculture for Healthy Food – Lessons from a Modeling of the European Food System. Paris, France: IDDRI (Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales).


Millennium Institute (2013) Global Food and Nutrition Scenarios – Final Report. Washington, DC.


Solagro (2019) The Reverse of Our Plate – Changing Our Diet to Preserve Our Health and Our Environment. Toulouse, France: Solagro.


ANSES (2017) National Individual Study of Food Consumption n°3 (INCA 3). Maisons-Alfort, France.


Haut Conseil de la santé publique (2018) Opinion on Quantified Public Health Objectives for Public Health Nutrition Policy (PNNS) 2018–2022. Paris, France: Haut Conseil de la santé publique.


Louzada, ML, Baraldi, LG, Steele, EM et al. (2015) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Prev Med 81, 915.10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.07.018


Canella, DS, Levy, RB, Martins, APB et al. (2014) Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008–2009). Plos One 9, e92752.


Nardocci, M, Leclerc, B-S, Louzada, M-L et al. (2019) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Canada. Can J Public Health 110, 414.


Juul, F, Martinez-Steele, E, Parekh, N et al. (2018) Ultra-processed food consumption and excess weight among US adults. Brit J Nutr 120, 90100.


Canhada, S, Luft, VC, Giatti, L et al. (2020) Ultra-processed foods, incident overweight and obesity, and longitudinal changes in weight and waist circumference: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Public Health Nutr 23, 10761086.


Mendonca, RD, Pimenta, AM, Gea, A et al. (2016) Ultraprocessed food consumption and risk of overweight and obesity: the University of Navarra Follow-Up (SUN) cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 104, 14331440.10.3945/ajcn.116.135004


Fardet, A, Lakhssassi, S & Briffaz, A (2018) Beyond nutritional-based food indices: a data mining approach to search for a quantitative holistic index reflecting the degree of food processing and including physicochemical properties. Foods Funct 9, 561572.10.1039/C7FO01423F


Fardet, A, Méjean, C, Labouré, H et al. (2017) The degree of processing of foods which are most widely consumed by the French elderly population is associated with satiety and glycemic potentials and nutrient profiles. Food Funct 8, 651658.10.1039/C6FO01495J


Palacios, C & Gonzalez, L (2014) Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 144, 138145.


Sahota, O (2014) Understanding vitamin D deficiency. Age Ageing 43, 589591.10.1093/ageing/afu104


Forrest, KY & Stuhldreher, WL (2011) Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res 31, 4854.10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.001


Slining, MM & Popkin, BM (2012) Trends in sources of empty calories for 2–18 olds in the US: 1977–2008. FASEB J 26, Meeting Abstract.


Bellisle, F, Hébel, P, Colin, J et al. (2014) Consumption of whole grains in French children, adolescents and adults. Brit J Nutr 112, 16741684.


Foyer, CH, Lam, H-M, Nguyen, HT et al. (2016) Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production. Nat Plants 2, 16112.


Derbyshire, EJ (2017) Flexitarian diets and health: a review of the evidence-based-literature. Front Nutr 3, 55.


Hicks, TM, Knowles, SO & Farouk, MM (2018) Global provisioning of red meat for Flexitarian diets. Front Nutr 3, 55.


Shepon, A, Eshel, G, Noor, E et al. (2018) The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115, 38043809.


Springmann, M, Clark, M, Mason-D’Croz, D et al. (2018) Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits. Nature 562, 519525.


Batlle-Bayer, L, Aldaco, R, Bala, A et al. (2019) Towards sustainable dietary patterns under a water-energy-food nexus life cycle thinking approach. Curr Opin Environ Sci Health 13, 6167.


Hallström, E, Carlsson-Kanyama, A & Börjesson, P (2015) Environmental impact of dietary change: a systematic review. J Cleaner Prod 91, 111.


Behrens, P, Kiefte-de Jong, JC, Bosker, T et al. (2017) Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114, 1341213417.


Monteiro, CA, Moubarac, J-C, Levy, RB et al. (2017) Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in nineteen European countries. Public Health Nutr 21, 1826.


Julia, C, Martinez, L, Alles, B et al. (2018) Contribution of ultra-processed foods in the diet of adults from the French NutriNet-Sante study. Public Health Nutr 21, 2737.


Maillot, M, Darmon, N, Vieux, F et al. (2007) Low energy density and high nutritional quality are each associated with higher diet costs in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 690696.


Moreira, PVL, Baraldi, LG, Moubarac, J-C et al. (2015) Comparing different policy scenarios to reduce the consumption of ultra-processed foods in UK: impact on cardiovascular disease mortality using a modelling approach. Plos One 10, e0118353.


Blanco-Rojo, R, Sandoval-Insausti, H, López-Garcia, E et al. (2019) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and mortality: a national prospective cohort in Spain. Mayo Clin Proc 94, 21782188.


Kim, H, Hu, EA & Rebholz, CM (2019) Ultra-processed food intake and mortality in the USA: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Public Health Nutr 22, 17771785.


Rico-Campà, A, Martínez-González, MA, Alvarez-Alvarez, I et al. (2019) Association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and all cause mortality: SUN prospective cohort study. BMJ 365, l1949.


Srour, B, Fezeu, LK, Kesse-Guyot, E et al. (2019) Ultra-processed food intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé). BMJ 365, l1451.


Moreira, PVL, Hyseni, L, Moubarac, J-C et al. (2018) Effects of reducing processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed foods in the Brazilian diet: a cardiovascular modelling study. Public Health Nutr 21, 181188.


Boutron-Ruault, M-C, Mesrine, S & Pierre, F (2017) Chapter 12: Meat consumption and health outcomes. In Vegetarian and Plant-Based Diets in Health and Disease Prevention [Mariotti, F, editor]. San Diego: Elsevier.


Tilman, D & Clark, M (2014) Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 515, 518522.


Satija, A, Bhupathiraju, SN, Spiegelman, D et al. (2017) Healthful and unhealthful plant-based diets and the risk of coronary heart disease in US adults. J Am Coll Cardiol 70, 411422.10.1016/j.jacc.2017.05.047


Food and Agriculture Organization (2001) La nutrition dans les pays en développement [Nutrition in Developing Countries]. Rome, Italy: FAO.


Fumagalli, M, Moltke, I, Grarup, N et al. (2015) Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation. Science 349, 13431347.


Hockett, B & Haws, J (2003) Nutritional ecology and diachronic trends in Paleolithic diet and health. Evol Anthropol 12, 211216.10.1002/evan.10116


Salen, P & de Lorgeril, M (2011) The Okinawan diet: a modern view of an ancestral healthy lifestyle. In Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People. 102, pp. 114123 [Simopoulos, AP, editor]. Basel, Karger: World Review Nutrition Diet.


Yamori, Y, Miura, A & Taira, K (2001) Implications from and for food cultures for cardiovascular diseases: Japanese food, particularly Okinawan diets. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 10, 144145.


de Menezes, EVA, Sampaio, HAD, Carioca, AAF et al. (2019) Influence of Paleolithic diet on anthropometric markers in chronic diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis. Nut J 18, 41.


Ghaedi, E, Mohammadi, M, Mohammadi, H et al. (2019) Effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Nutr 10, 634646.


Soltani, S, Jayedi, A, Shab-Bidar, S et al. (2019) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in relation to all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Adv Nutr 10, 10291039.


Eleftheriou, D, Benetou, V, Trichopoulou, A et al. (2018) Mediterranean diet and its components in relation to all-cause mortality: meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 120, 10811097.


Bonaccio, M, Di Castelnuovo, A, Costanzo, S et al. (2018) Mediterranean diet and mortality in the elderly: a prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 120, 841854.10.1017/S0007114518002179


Sofi, F, Macchi, C, Abbate, R et al. (2014) Mediterranean diet and health status: an updated meta-analysis and a proposal for a literature-based adherence score. Public Health Nutr 17, 27692782.


Galbete, C, Schwingshackl, L, Schwedhelm, C et al. (2018) Evaluating Mediterranean diet and risk of chronic disease in cohort studies: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol 33, 909931.10.1007/s10654-018-0427-3


Sofi, F, Abbate, R, Gensini, GF et al. (2010) Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 11891196.


Malmir, H, Saneei, P, Larijani, B et al. (2018) Adherence to Mediterranean diet in relation to bone mineral density and risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Nutr 57, 21472160.10.1007/s00394-017-1490-3

Dinu, M, Pagliai, G, Casini, A et al. (2018) Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 3043.


Rosato, V, Temple, NJ, La Vecchia, C et al. (2019) Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Nutr 58, 173191.


Grosso, G, Marventano, S, Yang, J et al. (2017) A comprehensive meta-analysis on evidence of Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: are individual components equal? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57, 32183232.


Liyanage, T, Ninomiya, T, Wang, A et al. (2016) Effects of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos One 11, e0159252.


Psaltopoulou, T, Sergentanis, TN, Panagiotakos, DB et al. (2013) Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol 74, 580591.


Nissensohn, M, Roman-Vinas, B, Sanchez-Villegas, A et al. (2016) The effect of the Mediterranean diet on hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr Educ Behav 48, 4253.


Li, Y, Hu, BQ, Wu, XJ et al. (2018) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Trans Cancer Res 7, 12901297.


van den Brandt, PA & Schulpen, M (2017) Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: results of a cohort study and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 140, 22202231.10.1002/ijc.30654


Schwingshackl, L, Schwedhelm, C, Galbete, C et al. (2017) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 9, 1063.


Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G (2015) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Med 4, 19331947.


Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G (2014) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer 135, 18841897.


Wu, L & Sun, DL (2017) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing cognitive disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Sci Rep 7, 41317.


Loughrey, DG, Lavecchia, S, Brennan, S et al. (2017) The impact of the Mediterranean diet on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Adv Nutr 8, 571586.


Singh, B, Parsaik, AK, Mielke, MM et al. (2014) Association of Mediterranean diet with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Alzheimers Dis 39, 271282.10.3233/JAD-130830


Schwingshackl, L, Missbach, B, Konig, J et al. (2015) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr 18, 12921299.


Panagiotakos, D, Pitsavos, C, Koloverou, E et al. (2014) Mediterranean diet and diabetes development: a meta-analysis of 12 studies and 140,001 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol 63, A1349A1349.10.1016/S0735-1097(14)61349-8


Koloverou, E, Esposito, K, Giugliano, D et al. (2014) The effect of Mediterranean diet on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies and 136,846 participants. Metabolism 63, 903911.


Huo, R, Du, T, Xu, Y et al. (2015) Effects of Mediterranean-style diet on glycemic control, weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes individuals: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 69, 12001208.


Esposito, K, Maiorino, MI, Bellastella, G et al. (2015) A journey into a Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analyses. BMJ Open 5, e008222.


Adamsson, V, Reumark, A, Cederholm, T et al. (2012) What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study. Food Nutr Res 56, 18189.


Zimorovat, A, Mohammadi, M, Ramezani-Jolfaie, N et al. (2020) The healthy Nordic diet for blood glucose control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Acta Diabetol 57, 112.


Ramezani-Jolfaie, N, Mohammadi, M & Salehi-Abargouei, A (2019) The effect of healthy Nordic diet on cardio-metabolic markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Eur J Nutr 58, 21592174.


Shakersain, B, Rizzuto, D, Larsson, SC et al. (2018) The Nordic prudent diet reduces risk of cognitive decline in the Swedish older adults: a population-based cohort study. Nutrients 10, 229.10.3390/nu10020229


Shakersain, B, Santoni, G, Larsson, SC et al. (2016) Prudent diet may attenuate the adverse effects of Western diet on cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement 12, 100109.


Villegas, R, Salim, A, Flynn, A et al. (2004) Prudent diet and the risk of insulin resistance. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 14, 334343.10.1016/S0939-4753(04)80023-1


Bradbury, K, Tong, T & Key, T (2017) Dietary intake of high-protein foods and other major foods in meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans in UK Biobank. Nutrients 9, 1317.


Viguiliouk, E, Kendall, CWC, Kahleova, H et al. (2019) Effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr 38, 11331145.


Glenn, AJ, Viguiliouk, E, Seider, M et al. (2019) Relation of vegetarian dietary patterns with major cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Front Nutr 6, 80.10.3389/fnut.2019.00080


Dinu, M, Abbate, R, Gensini, GF et al. (2017) Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57, 36403649.10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447


Huang, T, Yang, B, Zheng, JS et al. (2012) Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-Analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metabol 60, 233240.


Lee, Y & Park, K (2017) Adherence to a vegetarian diet and diabetes risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients 9, 603.


Haghighatdoost, F, Bellissimo, N, de Zepetnek, JOT et al. (2017) Association of vegetarian diet with inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Public Health Nutr 20, 27132721.


Barnard, ND, Levin, SM & Yokoyama, Y (2015) A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet 115, 954969.


Yokoyama, Y, Nishimura, K, Barnard, ND et al. (2014) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: A meta-analysis. JAMA Int Med 174, 577587.


Yokoyama, Y, Barnard, ND, Levin, SM et al. (2014) Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 4, 373382.


Zhang, Z, Ma, G, Chen, S et al. (2013) Comparison of plasma triacylglycerol levels in vegetarians and omnivores: a meta-analysis. Nutrition 29, 426430.


Mohsenpour, MA, Fallah-Moshkani, R, Ghiasvand, R et al. (2019) Adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and the risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Am Coll Nutr 38, 513525.


Mohseni, R, Mohseni, F, Alizadeh, S et al. (2019) The association of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutr Cancer 72, 778790.10.1080/01635581.2019.1651880


Akhlaghi, M (2019) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH): potential mechanisms of action against risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res Rev 33, 118.


Soltani, S, Chitsazi, MJ & Salehi-Abargouei, A (2018) The effect of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) on serum inflammatory markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Clin Nutr 37, 542550.


Bricarello, LP, Poltronieri, F, Fernandes, R et al. (2018) Effects of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on blood pressure, overweight and obesity in adolescents: a systematic review. Clin Nutr Espen 28, 111.


Soltani, S, Shirani, F, Chitsazi, MJ et al. (2016) The effect of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Obes Rev 17, 442454.


Siervo, M, Lara, J, Chowdhury, S et al. (2015) Effects of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brit J Nutr 113, 115.10.1017/S0007114514003341


Salehi-Abargouei, A, Maghsoudi, Z, Shirani, F et al. (2013) Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases-incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis on observational prospective studies. Nutrition 29, 611618.


Saneei, P, Salehi-Abargouei, A, Esmaillzadeh, A et al. (2014) Influence of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24, 12531261.10.1016/j.numecd.2014.06.008


Shirani, F, Salehi-Abargouei, A & Azadbakht, L (2013) Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on some risk for developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials. Nutrition 29, 939947.


Kaluza, J, Hakansson, N, Harris, HR et al. (2019) Influence of anti-inflammatory diet and smoking on mortality and survival in men and women: two prospective cohort studies. J Intern Med 285, 7591.


Kaluza, J, Stackelberg, O, Harris, HR et al. (2019) Anti-inflammatory diet and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm in two Swedish cohorts. Heart 105, 18761883.


Tolkien, K, Bradburn, S & Murgatroyd, C (2019) An anti-inflammatory diet as a potential intervention for depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr 38, 20452052.


Sears, B & Ricordi, C (2011) Anti-inflammatory nutrition as a pharmacological approach to treat obesity. J Obes 2011, 431985.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *